Thriving in the Wake of Disaster

Passionate administration work to rebuild the outside of the Cathedral as well as the inside.

Tuesday, August 23rd of 2011 ruptured the course of Washington D.C.’s architectural future. A 5.8 earthquake shook the city to its foundations, including major landmarks such as the Washington Monument and the Washington National Cathedral.


For a historical and religious symbol to crumble, even in our secular society, it shifts the dynamic of religious strength. Those that originally saw the Cathedral as a place of empowerment and faith were devastated by the catastrophe, and those that did not see the Cathedral as a focal point now had a reason to pay attention. The Cathedral’s commandeering Gothic facade crumbled, stained glass shattered, some of the infamous gargoyles were destroyed.

Like most things in Washington DC, it can be easy to assume that the Washington National Cathedral would be able to be restored to its past glory because of federal funding, considering the word “National” is in the name. However, this is not the case. Church and state jurisprudence means that while the Cathedral is the nation’s religious center, it is not supported by the government. In the years after the earthquake, the Cathedral finds itself in a predicament of locating funding in an ever secular world, begging the question- who will donate to the multi-million dollar earthquake fund? The regulars who have been donating to the cathedral for decades are usually older religious congregation members who have lived in the Virginia, DC, Maryland area. However, these blue-haired congregates yearly twenty-five dollar donations aren’t cutting it, and neither was the Cathedral’s lack of a response system in the event of disasters.

Two years after the earthquake, the Cathedral realized that there was no system in place to effectively solve a crisis like the earthquake. This led to the hiring of the outspoken, intelligent Director of Preservation Jim Shepard. “I’m an unusual candidate,” Jim begins, reaching over to take a sip of his iced coffee, “because I actually have architectural and restoration experience in other Cathedrals.” Jim’s job description entails practically everything physical about the Cathedral. The capital needs, earthquake repair, deterred maintenance, fire safety, and “The Organ Project”, which requires the organ to be updated regularly to continue to function normally. The organ was put in place in 1938, and has slowly been expanded and updated throughout the years. However, this ongoing project has been put on hold since the earthquake because of the crumbling exterior. Ten million dollars of funding needs to be raised to attend to all the damages, both from the earthquake and for the general needs of repairs to make the Cathedral pleasant and habitable. Under Jim’s passionate leadership, the Cathedral has begun to make strides to repair earthquake damage, and will continue to do so with zeal.


While the physicality of the Cathedral is modernized, the Program’s office is also working tirelessly to continue the programs. Michelle Dibblee, the new program director since July, entered with a background in community organizing and social justice work. She has continued progressive work concerning topics like gun violence and racism in relationship to faith. “We’re really looking to grow our relationships between the Cathedral community and the administration, along with finding other organizations that want to work with the Cathedral community on projects to further the gun violence and racial justice work,” Michelle explains, in her quick to the point manner that has become famous among congregation members and administration alike. When I ask her about how she feels that the Cathedral has changed since she has been a part of the Programs team, she clasps her hands together to think. She opens them up again, gesticulating around her, conducting her response, “This initiative to create stronger relationships isn’t a new concept at the Cathedral, I think that the Cathedral has always had a place in the civic sphere about elevating the conversation and experience in our changing society. We are both a spiritual and civic institution. It’s important for the Cathedral to respond to the world around us.”


Most recently, in response to the racially charged shootings and police brutality, the Cathedral had an event in which stained glass from one of the windows was extracted. It was given as a gift commemorating Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. In conjunction with taking the stained glass out, the Cathedral brought in speakers and created a schedule of forums to discuss where and how the Confederate flag serves as a piece of history and a proponent of racism. To take these pieces of stained glass out and create an open discussion space about the topic of race within the Cathedral congregation and the population of DC, it places the Cathedral in a new space as a meeting place for discussion and progression. Kelly Brown Douglas, the canon theologian at the Cathedral has coined the term a “new narrative of race” at the Cathedral, which requires the literal building fabric to be a source of discussion and change along with the social fabric of the congregation. After the physical removal of the windows and the planned racial justice events, the Cathedral is making its exterior as strong as its interior.


Just like how the Cathedral is changing physically, it is changing socially as well. The Cathedral might not make any outward political statements, but it is moving towards being a well known, inclusive national landmark and community.


Mr. Dylan, The Times Are Still A-Changin’

musicandpolitics-p1Has anyone considered that Bob Dylan might not want his Nobel Prize? He has yet again dismissed his prize for Literature by declining an invitation by President Barack Obama himself. But why? 2016 saw an increase of adversity and a divisive election pitting the country against itself. With continued violence against black America, increased involvement in the middle east, and a fear mongering demagogue becoming the leader of the free world: The United States has not seemed to heed the warning of his protest songs from the past 50 years.

Maybe he doesn’t want the prize because he feels as he doesn’t deserve it. The country is constantly divided, changing for better or worse and the need to call out injustice is still as necessary as it was in 1963

Music is and has always been a vehicle for ideas, movements, and stories to proliferate through society. The bards of past reciting stories of glory and triumph; began a legacy of allegory and perspective through music and prose. Weather it was “The Star-Spangled Banner” in the War of 1812, “Revolution” by the Beatles during the Vietnam war, NWA’s “Fuck Tha Police” and race issues in LA during the 80’s or today’s “Fuck Donald Trump” by rapper YG. Music and politics have traversed time hand in hand.

The contemporary impact of political music reflects the civil rights movement and anti-war sentiments of the 1960’s. Music provides a united front in the face of injustice. Musicians have always used their music as a platform to provide their own insights on the world. Mississippi Goddamn (1964), By Nina Simone reflects this, as it was inspired by a bombing of an Alabama church that killed four little girls. A year later, she performed Mississippi Goddam, concluding the historic marches from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965.

Hound dogs on my trail
School children sitting in jail
Black cat cross my path
I think every day’s gonna be my last

Lord have mercy on this land of mine
We all gonna get it in due time

– Nina Simone — Mississippi Goddam

In 1963, Bob Dylan Wrote The Times They Are A-Changin’. Emerging from of a counterculture of peace and love in contrast to the brute force of American patriotism and the fear of communism began to take hold. As the Disapproval of American involvement in Vietnam was beginning, so did the power of anti-war music and piece loving hippies. No longer did people desire to be wanted by Uncle Sam, an emergence of criticizing the government led to the movement of thousands against the Vietnam war. People wanted to be heard, and the government wasn’t listening. Music was the catalyst of this fissure between federal control and individual autonomy.

Come senators, congressmen
Please heed the call
Don’t stand in the doorway
Don’t block up the hall
For he that gets hurt
Will be he who has stalled
There’s the battle outside raging
It’ll soon shake your windows and rattle your walls
For the times they are a-changing

– Bob Dylan — The Times They Are A-Changin’

In times of adversity and struggle music also can unite us. In 2004 the United Nations Secretary-General asserted that music unites people of different backgrounds.

“Music penetrates almost every part of our lives: our rest, our entertainment, our education, and our worship. Throughout history, it has celebrated the triumphs and tragedies of life. As Plato said, music “gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination”. Music both shapes and reflects society. Dancers follow its beat; protesters use it to find their voice. It can promote ideals — like peace and solidarity — but it can also prepare armies for battle. It is part of almost every important personal and collective moment. In a world of diversity where often values clash, music leaps across language barriers and unites people of quite different cultural backgrounds. And so, through music, all peoples can come together to make the world a more harmonious place.”

– Secretary-General Kofi Annan Introductory Remarks on “Why Music Matters” by Professor Leon Bostein (November 8, 2004)

Music is a language all on its own, one does not need to understand the lyrics to understand the music, the feeling, the idea which surrounds a song. No matter one’s race, place of origin, heritage, sexuality, gender and identity: music creates connections even between the strongest of adversaries.

bio photo of Chris Richards courtesy of

On the individual level, music can change one’s life. Raised in the D.C. punk rock scene, and now the pop critic and editor for the Washington Post, Chris Richards is a man made by music. When considering the impact of musicians, music and politics he believes “music can teach us a lot about empathy and compassion — it shows us how other people feel and how they live”. It seems that the music we listen to has the ability to disseminate into what we believe, think, and do with the world and our personal politics.

Growing up in DC and being a part of its punk scene in the 90’s also had a major impact on Richards’s life. Many of the shows he would go to as a teenager were benefits concerts to raise money and awareness to local activists and charity groups. He explains, “It taught me that if you want to change the world, starting with your own community is an excellent first step”.

Music has always been an expression of free speech, and as a journalist Richards understands this all too well. He claims “a lot of the best music communicates a certain sense of possibility, and freedom is necessary to explore those possibilities”. For the Beatles, it was the possibility of coming together, or imagining a better world.

Considering the police brutality in LA During the 1980’s N.W.A.’s controversial song, Fuck tha Police is also an expression of these “possibilities”. Organized under the value to protect, mobilized by the fear of minorities, the police did not represent or protect black people, they were at war. Chris Richards believes “Musicians can use sound to respond to the world in countless ways, and that can include responding to the political moment. I’ve seen musical expression motivate listeners to take political action in their own lives, for sure.” N.W.A. used their music to make light of the injustices, to show the world why a sentiment like that was needed for society. It may have not been pretty, and respectful, but it carried meaning for all those who could relate.

Fuck the police coming straight from the underground
A young nigga got it bad cause I’m brown
And not the other color so police think
they have the authority to kill a minority
Fuck that shit, cause I ain’t the one
for a punk motherfucker with a badge and a gun

– N.W.A.    Fuck Tha Police

Music is Powerful. Music defines identities, provides foundations for movements, and inspires change. It can reinforce personal values, divide us and unite us. The stories told, and shared through a musician’s eye reflects the society that surrounds it. Music is a record of history, it shows us where we have come from, the changes we have seen and the issues that still preside from the past. As politics, debates and adversity continue to dictate our lives music shall always follow to show us the light as we follow it into the dark.


Natalie Landin
Bradley University Class of 2018
American University Semester Internship Program Fall 2016

Can a Rider’s Union save the WMATA from going underground?


The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) opened its car doors on March 27th, 1976.  This coincidentally is the last time a majority of its trains were updated.  With broken down escalators at almost every station, trains that just fail to arrive, and overcrowded commutes, riders don’t have to look hard for the shortcomings of the WMATA.

    2015 has been a trying year for the WMATA; starting off with the tragic death of a rider due to a car filling with smoke and the madness that comes from single tracking disrupting weekends and evenings all year round. Public transportation has the opportunity to cut down the traffic on the roads and the pollution in the air, all while making citizens lives easier by taking them from point A to point B, but the WMATA has found a way to make it more of a chore than a convenience. Loyal riders have found themselves buying cars, doing anything to avoid having to wait for delayed trains only to then be packed in like sardines.  After 40 years since Metro’s opening day, riders are banning together and saying enough is enough, someone needs to stand up for the riders.  

    To go deeper into the complaints that riders have, there are some serious safety concerns when it comes to riding Metro.  For riders that are in a wheelchair, it is sometimes impossible to get on or off the car safely because it isn’t level with the platform.  Smoke incidents are happening all the time.  It seems there is an escalator or elevator out at every station, and when it comes to the very long escalators, that poses a serious health threat expecting riders to walk all the way up.  And then there are the administrative issues.  There are trains that never come and if you rely on the Metro App you will find that bus schedules are never accurate, and that buses often just disappear.  “It has come to the point that if you have to be somewhere on time, you don’t take Metro! It’s too unpredictable,” said an American University student we talked to at the Tenleytown Station.  


    Let’s give a little insight to how WMATA is set up, and how the Rider’s Union fits in.  There is a General Manager, a board of directors, inspector general, the whole bit.  All people who, if we had to guess, don’t ride Metro.  Some of the Board responsibilities include “policy, financial direction, oversight and WMATA’s relationship with its customers, jurisdictional partner and signatories,” according to the Board of Directors bylaws.  This Board essentially fell to pieces earlier in 2015.  The General Manager had to step down, and the Federal government took over because of how badly WMATA was being managed.  Another part of the WMATA office is the Rider’s Advisory Council that was established in 2005.  This council’s purpose is to serve as a connection to the riders.  Meetings are open to the public and serve as a forum to discuss rider’s needs.  Unfortunately, this council hasn’t worked as planned.  On average less than 10 people go to the meetings.  Across the board, Metro has fallen short, making way for the Rider’s Union.  The Rider’s Union mission statement captures what they hope to do for riders.  It “represents the interests of the riders of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s bus, rail, and Metro Access services…operates on a democratic and consensus-driven basis, and its actions are intended to benefit all WMATA riders.”       

    Ashley Robbins, a transit consultant and principal figure in the Rider’s Union, stated that “while the WMATA is addressing the issues of communication, service, infrastructure and  reliability, it needs to be transparent about what riders should expect”. Although Robbins recognized the Rider’s Advisory Council and has met with them on occasion, she suggested that “its presence hasn’t been felt by riders”. It seems to act more as a focus group that presents the WMATA Board with issues, whereas the Riders’ Union is looking to recommend changes and push for specific policy goals that it would like to see implemented. Transit authorities across the country, including in New York and Boston, are very active in publicizing all the work they do. The Rider’s Union in Washington DC is hoping to follow suit by pushing the WMATA to communicate better.  The Union has been very successful at using social media, for promoting their own events as well as official WMATA board events that riders should attend.  They have the upper hand when it comes to social media.    

    When talking about the goals of the Rider’s Union, Robbins says it all boils down to growing their organization, and empowering riders.  By working together, the WMATA Board and Rider’s Union can achieve the common goal of happy Metro riders.  Only time will tell if Metro will be willing to listen to a union organized by one of their fiercest critics, habitual riders.   


“Life is about love and pancakes”

Breakdancing, crocheting on the Metro and HIV education: Dwayne Lawson-Brown, a DC poetry slammer and host, is famous around town for more than his spoken word.


The atmosphere in the crowded room at Busboys and Poets, a DC poetry location, is vibrant, open and easy-going. It’s a big variety of people among the 150 men and women coming together at this warm evening at the end of March for a poetry slam Open Mic event: They have alternative styles, the majority is black but there are also white businessmen in suits.

They clap and nod their heads to the beat and every now and then, somebody snaps his fingers to show his appreciation for the spoken and chanted words – just like in the times of the Beat Generation, even if the poetry community doesn’t have to meet in the basements anymore.

While all this is happening, two black men in their thirties give their stunning performance, rapping their own lyrics to the beat of Kanye West’s and Jay-Z’s famous “Ni**as in Paris”. The one man is the host of this monthly event, Dwayne Lawson-Brown and the other is his best friend and today’s main act. Both of them have lived in Washington, DC, for years.

“There are two things the district can not live without, and that’s government and entertainment”, says Lawson-Brown, 31, relaxing on a bench at Busboys and Poets after the show. “The government and the entertainment industry are the two real money-generating things. Government because that’s where everybody gets their paycheck, entertainment because everybody needs some time of escape from the government. They go hand in hand.”

Dwayne Lawson-Brown is a native Washingtonian who loves Washington’s entertaining art scene, especially the poetry scene. He’s very proud that the District is the running champion for the Brave New Voices Youth Poetry Tournament, as well as the National Poetry Slam Adult Tournament: “The nation’s capital is the poetry capital right now!”

The poetry scene influences every part of his life: As his daytime job, the 31-year-old man works for the nonprofit Real Talk DC that focuses on HIV education. By writing poetry about it, hosting events, promoting prevention on Social Media and producing a Podcast, he tries to increase HIV awareness through the spoken-word community.

Besides that, Lawson-Brown aka Crochet Kingpin has a lot of different interests that do not seem to fit together at the first sight: He is a break-dancer, DJ, entertainer, crocheting fashion designer and of course a poet and poetry slam host who already won some awards, for example the National Underground Spoken-Word Poetry Award.

He spends most of his free time on his greatest passion, poetry slams. Aside from Busboys and Poets, he hosts an Open Mic near Howard University called Spit that! once a week. But also, the rest of his days are filled with poetry events.

“There is no such thing like a normal day for me. But after work, I usually end up in some Open Mic”, Lawson-Brown says. When he enters the stage, he forgets about everything else. He doesn’t let the crowd or the rest of his sometimes crappy day effect him. It’s challenging to read out his often are very personal poems, but according to him, that’s what poetry is about.

“I’m an artist and my artistic duty is to bring myself joy by sharing my most difficult work”, he explains. ”Sometimes it’s the joy of a butterfly coming out of the cocoon. Some days it’s like a butterfly trapped in a room full of gas. Performing is such a double-edged sword and you show a lot of personal stuff. Sometimes it’s really welcoming, sometimes it’s really bitter. But every time you get up there and take that chance.”

Lawson-Brown’s poetry style is short, introspective, and descriptive. One of his newest poems published on his blog poetry starts like this:

Working toward goals makes you feel like you really making some kinda progress.
But you look up from your hard work and realize that you’re surrounded by the same stress.
(…) Coming up next!
 Everything’s so complex, work so much, no time to decompress.

Another one goes like this:

I just cried for my
Son, because someday I could
Become a hashtag.
He cried for me when
He saw my tears. We both are
Mourning innocence.

Crochet Kingpin reflects on both himself and his environment. “I’ve always shot to be a very honest writer”, he explains his work. “Often we live lies. We hide behind everything else. I’m afraid that folks use poetry or Hip Hop to cement their mask. In my work, my goal is to take my mask off when I’m sharing my work.”

With this honesty, he also wants to achieve a special goal. “At the end, I want the audience to feel that they know more about me and that there is a little bit of me inside of them”, he tells. Also, he wants people to be more comfortable with themselves by showing that they are not the only ones in uncomfortable situations. “I think there is something like communal healing and my work is geared around healing and self-discovery”, Lawson-Brown adds.

When he is not performing or listening at a poetry slam, he can be found on the Metro, simply riding around and documenting his life through poetry, as well as making scarves and hats. It is an unusual picture and he attracts attention with his look: A “Hip-Hop” guy with sneakers, wide clothes, gold necklaces and a cap who sits in the rail car and crochets, writing down some notes from time to time. “I can’t help, my best poetry is written in two spaces: On the toilet and on the Metro”, Lawson-Brown says laughing.

“People-watching on the Metro is a wonderful thing. This and the noise of the Metro triggers something and a line will just hit me. Inspiration just falls out of the sky and then I have to write, no matter where I am.” Because of his unusual look with the crocheting things, people approach him very often. These encounters mean a lot to the Washingtonian man and lead to funny and unexpected conversations: “My favorite thing is when I see another guy and he walks up: ‘Yo, I crochet too!’ And I’m like: ‘Oh you don’t have to keep it a secret, it’s okay!’ And we end up exchanging tips on the Metro!”

With all of those different encounters and activities, it’s hard to imagine that Dwayne Lawson-Brown still has time for family. But when he’s asked about all those different things, he answers: “First, I’m a father. My little son Darius is six years old by now and full of joy! His energy makes me push to be better.” Darius lives with his mother in Baltimore. On occasion, Dwayne is there and he talks to his son every day on the phone.

“His mother an I are no longer together but we’re still friends”, he voices. “But we go into parenting like a team. To be successful raising a child, you need to be a team whether you’re together or not. Every now and then, the two of us go to brunch or to happy hour and talk about life. It’s 2015, we have to figure out how to parent even if the parents aren’t lovers.”

Lawson-Brown himself grew up without his father, his mother raised him on her own in Southeast DC. “My dad left when I was three, just conflict with mama”, he says. “I missed him and scribbled letters to my dad. I wrote stuff that influenced me in my poetry style.” Also, his family situation as a child was the reason why he started to write.

When his mother Wanda Barnes, 50, who recently got married again, found out about her son writing poetry, she wasn’t surprised: “I write and I knew that it is in the family!” The Mother and her son still have a close relationship and they also live together. Thinking about all those years, Wanda Barnes notices one thing: “He always was pretty much the same as he is now! Very active, he did not like to sit still much, we had to keep him busy.”

Through this period, writing became the activity that engaged the young man the most. The first time he performed his poetry was at the age of sixteen. Back then, Lawson-Brown just started at a new high school.

“I was this Goth awkward kid”, he admits. “And being a Goth awkward kid in Southeast DC just doesn’t spell socially great.” Until then, he also didn’t realize that DC is the political city that it is. “You never realize what’s in your backyard”, he explains.

Becoming more interested in the greater things happening around him, he went to a poetry event where he got a job for writing poetry for a HIV prevention nonprofit organization. That made him start to read out his poetry and gave him confidence. Realizing that sharing his words could effect others pushed him a lot. The second push in his life was when he met his best friend Drew Anderson 15 years ago.

“He hosted an Open Mic with this poem that spoke directly to my heart”, Lawson-Brown says. “Through his poetry, I started to realize: Wow, I can be really touched by this word. I want to effect people like he affects people. I want to create the change that I want to see within others by being an example.”

That self-characterization sounds pretty ambitious. But it also matches what his best friend and poet Drew Anderson alias Droopy the Broke Baller, says about him many years later. “Dwayne is like all of the elements of Hip-Hop in one person”, he states. “And also, he’s a person who wants to make everything around him to be better without coming of he is better than everything around him.”

Watching the two friends now, performing and hosting together at different Open Mic events, you can see what a well-rehearsed team they are and that they share a lot of interests. “He means everything to me”, says Anderson, who just turned 37, expresses. “He’s like my little brother, he’s my pair, he’s someone who looks up to me and who I look up to at the same time.”

Because he is perhaps the person, that knows Lawson-Brown the best, Anderson also finally solves the mystery of how all those different interests of his best friend match better than you would expect at first sight. For Anderson, the clue is, that his mate does all his work and projects from his heart.

“I couldn’t see him just do a job that he wouldn’t take within”, the 37-year-old man explains. “Everything he does, he brings into everything he does. Because he’s a HIV health educator, he would bring that into poetry and bring dance into poetry and Hip Hop into the way he educates around health awareness. He’s just a very dynamic, multi-fascinated and multi-talented person.”

But also a vibrant, good-humored man like Dwayne Lawson-Brown had his dark days. As a young black man he wasn’t always thinking positively about his future: “So many things have happened in my life that make me feel: I could not have made it here. Trayvon Martin could have been me”, he says, using exactly the same sentence as Barack Obama did in his speech in July 2013 a few days after the George Zimmermann trial in that case.

“Mike Brown could have been me, in a real way”, he continues referring to the Ferguson trial. “I haven’t always been this nice little articulate boy. I definitely had mouthed off to cops and saying all this stuff. Anything could have happened. We [black men in his social periphery] celebrate every year.

Lawson-Brown was so pessimistic about his future that he didn’t make any life plans and just wasn’t prepared to be a grown-up. “We end up late to the game”, he explains. “Around 25 you have a midlife crisis as a black young man around here. What am I doing here? How am I going to buy a house? How does buying a house even look like?” Right now, buying a house is exactly what his ultimate dream is. He wants to create a place that the DC’s poets can own for themselves to realize all their ideas there.

The orientation problems in life he felt in his 20s were also reflected in his early poetry. 2015 is an important year for him looking at his future goals, but also in terms of dealing with his past. Besides the plans for his first record coming out in May and his first time of performing in a foreign country, Iceland, he is working on his first book right now that he wants to publish this year, including his new and old poems. He is not ashamed for his first steps into poetry.

Also, this late process of growing up and not being already settled in life at an early age could have helped Lawson-Brown to become a better poet. “I feel like I didn’t start getting good until … maybe now! I’m still growing! I feel like every artist is growing as long as they live.”

The special attitude he has is that he reworks his early writing, trying to improve and complete it instead of leaving it behind. The 31-year-old man thinks, that in 15 years, exactly the same thing will happen with his current poetry. “I feel like your body of work should be a living document the same way you are a living document. And you have a chance to take your past and take it forward with you.”

Talking about his work process, Lawson-Brown still sits on a bench after his evening as a poetry host. All the clapping and snapping guests left, a staff member vacuum-cleans the floor. Thoughtful the poet strokes his striking beard and adjusts his cap. At this late hour, he thinks about what this philosophy might mean for his future. Because this never-stopping process of improving and growing also has one conclusion: His perfect poem could maybe be his last one.

He starts to smile. “My masterwork will be my final thought!”, he calls out while laughing. “Whatever that last thought is, it’s gonna be like Boom! Maybe it’s gonna be some simple stuff like: LOVE. I feel like love is the answer for everything. We’re gonna be here like 50 years from now and you will say: Dwayne, your final words, what are they gonna be? And I will say: Love. And eat more pancakes. It’s the meaning of life: Love … and pancakes!”

DC’s growing homelessness – and how to get out of it


The escalator at the Metro Center in Washington, DC rumbles out of the tube and spits out people to the surface every second. It’s a cold and windy Friday morning. When men and women reach the top of the escalator, they put on their caps and tightly wrap their scarves around their necks. Denis Clayward, however, doesn’t mind the wintery weather – even if he stands in the cold way longer than everybody else, wearing only a black hoody and selling the homeless newspaper Street Sense. “It’s a culture shock”, the 34-year old man, who lives on the street, describes in regard to homelessness. “You panic. You don’t know what to do. You want to go back to your comfort but you can’t.”

Becoming homeless is one of the biggest fears of almost everybody. It doesn’t mean just loosing your house or flat, but also the place that felt like home and gave you a safe harbor in life – the biggest struggle is maybe the emotional one. In January 2014, 578,424 people were homeless in the United States on a given night as the 2014 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress states. Half of the homeless population in the US lives in five states: California (20% and more than 100,000 people), New York (14%), Florida, Texas and Maine. In general, homelessness in the US declined since 2007 in 31 of the 50 states, but D.C. experienced the opposite: Between 2007 and 2014, the amount of people without a home had a 45.6% increase to 7,648 people as a report of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development shows. Insiders expected the number to be even higher in 2015, but the US Interagency Council on Homelessness doesn’t want to name any specific numbers of the most recent national annual count yet, conducted in the end of January.

To be able to reduce that increasing amount again, two things are very important to know: What the reasons for the homelessness in the District are and how that number can return to its historically lower rates. As far as there are no official studies on that of the Government, the first question can only be answered by speaking with the homeless people themselves and find out, what happened to them. On the journey through DC to the main spots of the homeless population there were four main reasons that the men and women were willing to talk about why they live on the streets, which can be shown exemplarily on three persons.

For Denis Clayward the reasons were both, crime offences and familiar problems. The 34-year-old is a proud native Washingtonian. He loves his city, even though he has been homeless for three years now. Denis’ struggle to maintain structure in his life began at a very early age. “My father died when I was ten”, he states. “After that I had to become a man – and my daddy wasn’t there anymore to tell me how. I never could talk to anybody like I could to my father.” Denis started smoking and selling marijuana and not going to school. “

I became a hustler, not a man.” The first time he was arrested, he was just 11 years old. “I’ve been in prison the majority of my life, I’ve been raised by the government”, he admits with a smile. Three years ago, Denis Clayward finally ended his criminal career. “But once the fame of all the drug money is gone, people treat you differently”, he claims. Also, his family didn’t want to be involved into his life struggle anymore. The past three years of living on the streets blurred into a lot of hard nights in different shelters and unoccupied houses.

Besides crime and familiar issues like Denis’ experienced them, in a lot of cases just losing the job without having financial coverage causes homelessness. That’s also what happened to Reginald Black, who everybody calls Reggie. With his well-groomed appearance in a black coat and with new glasses, the 29-year-old homeless man doesn’t look like a stereotypical homeless person at all. In his early twenties, he lost one of his three jobs at a cleaning service. He didn’t have enough money to pay his rent and buy presentable clothing for work after that, so he forfeited his home as well as his other two jobs as a concierge and a cook at McDonalds.


The last leading reason for the homelessness in DC that can be found by talking to the people living on the street, is mental illness. Some of the homeless suffering from mental illness won’t even react to people talking to them, but Stephanie Thomas does. When she is asked for an interview, a tear runs down her face. She is used to people just ignoring her and the ones who give her some money barely talk to her. Maybe they are afraid of homeless people acting unpredictable if they have mental illnesses.

Meeting Stephanie on the coldest day in DC in 120 years, the 50-year-old African-American woman is still sitting at the street corners, holding her cardboard towards the pedestrians that wait for the green flashlights. When she is asked how she became homeless, more tears start to run down her cheeks. “Lost my place”, is all she finally mumbles with a trembling voice, repeating the words again and again. Having a conversation with her is hard, her eyes roll back into her head from now and then, and she won’t listen then. In a dazed state, Stephanie talks about her daughter that doesn’t speak to her anymore. She seems to be the only family left. The only thing that Stephanie Thomas seems to be sure about is her dream job: working in a restaurant.

Some homeless and chronically unemployed people in DC who also have the wish to work in the culinary field, can get the chance to gain a safe job in this branch and trade their life out of homelessness or addiction: at the DC Central Kitchen, founded 1999 by nightclub owner Robert Egger. To find a response for the question, how to reduce DC’s homelessness again, it is the best thing to look at already established best practice examples for sustainable ideas in Washington like the DC Central Kitchen is one. A lot of the non-profits – like soup kitchens and shelters – help people to survive but don’t solve these long-term problems: finding a new job and stabilizing the life situation again. But that’s exactly what DC Central kitchen focuses on: sustainability. “We are not a normal soup kitchen!”, makes communication director Erica Teti-Zilinskas, 31, clear. When Robert Egger volunteered at another place before, he noticed: “Often volunteering is more about redemption of the giver than the liberation of the receiver.” In a traditional soup kitchen the homeless people can get some food to survive the next day, but the facility can’t provide enough financial help for getting them out of poverty.

“So Robert had this idea to rework unused food from other kitchens and events to meals and deliver it to other partner non-profits in the city”, Erica Teti-Zilinskas describes the beginning of DC Central Kitchen. “The distinguishing factor between DC Central Kitchen and the homeless shelter upstairs or a soup kitchen is: We don’t serve any of our meals here.” Former homeless people or those who suffered from a drug addiction, who now are professionally learning how to cook, and 50,000 volunteers a year prepare 5,000 meals a day. Located in the ground floor of a homeless shelter, there is hustle and bustle in the kitchen that looks like a rebuilt small storehouse. The atmosphere is concentrated but blithesome. The employees show the volunteers and the trainees how to prepare the dishes, the majority of whose here are African-American. Chicken legs are being marinated, six people are cutting onions, two put the iron sheets with puff pastries out of the oven.

Outside, four men load the meals into small trucks. The food is distributed to shelters and halfway houses, allowing them to reinvest their funds in working towards their original mission and not feeding their clients. Erica Teti-Zilinskas states, that DC Central Kitchen saves these non-profits about $4 million a year because of the food distribution program. With this financial benefit and the job training program, “it’s more than just a good thing”, she thinks. The job placement rate in the culinary field also of the former homeless people after the 14 week program is high: “96 % of our 93 graduates from last year found a job afterwards”. A lot of them also stay at DC Central Kitchen and their subsidiary companies: 65 of the 150 staff are graduates of their own program. One of them is also Daniela Hurtado. “Now I am one of the chef cooks here!”, she narrates. “Right now I show my class how to make chicken pot pie.”


Another sustainable initiative in DC that could be viewed as a best practice example is the homeless newspaper Street Sense of which Denis Clayward also works as one of the 130 active vendors as of late. “Street Sense, Street Sense! Let’s make the world a better place!”, he shouts at the Metro Center with a smile on his friendly round face as if he has never done anything else. Quietly he murmurs: “It’s my first day – I’m still trying to get my swag together of how I do it.” Street Sense is less economically driven than DC Central Kitchen, but also progressive.

The office is located in the back building of the Church of the Epiphany downtown. From the outside, the bright white building looks impressive – but once you go through the red door you enter another world: Very simple furnishing, homeless people waiting for their newspapers, a computer room provided for the vendors. The homeless people can visit different workshops and write their articles here: 50 % of the newspaper is filled with texts written by the vendors. Founded in 2003, Street Sense raisers Ted Henson and Laura Thompson-Osuri wanted to both help the homeless to earn an income and increase the awareness of poverty in DC at the same time. Beginning with 5,000 copies biweekly it went up until 16,000 copies.

The most important things Jenifer Okosun, the voluntary Director of Communications and Marketing of Street Sense, learned in that time came from the vendors themselves. “It surprises me all the time that a lot of the homeless people even have college degrees – it shows me that homelessness can happen to anybody”, she explains. One of the first things a person loses then is the faith in oneself, she believes. “With Street Sense, they get more self-confident as far as what they can achieve.” Reginald Black, for example, tells that he has learned to participate a lot more in the community since then. For him, that is a big deal: He is one of the 63% of homeless Americans who experience homelessness in solitude. Furthermore, Reginald is very proud of his front-page stories and the appreciation that people show him as a reporter. “At some galas and political events I even got a press pass!”

However, Reggie’s dream job is not being a journalist; He wants to become an entrepreneur. He is on a good path to find his way back into a regular life: The 29-year-old just secured a room in a halfway house. “But homelessness still affects me – for example with sleeping problems”, he concedes. Nevertheless, Reggie tries to take the best from these years: “It will depress you and it will stress you up – but it is an amazing learning experience.” For example he learned a lot about local news, economics and politics in that time – just “how the city works”. The eloquent man secured much of this information at his standard selling point right in front of the World Bank by talking to his regular customers: bankers, lawyers and politicians. Now Reggie plans to use these contacts and the knowledge gained to change his life.

Denis Clayward also recently decided that he has to change his life fundamentally and hold an honest job for the first time. “It’s easy to break the law but it takes a man to take real initiative in life”, he describes. The main reason for the decision was becoming a better role model for his six kids. “I don’t want them to say anymore: ‘Daddy’s going to jail’”, he explains. “Now they will say: ‘Daddy’s selling newspapers on the street corners for the homeless. This is cool too, like Lil Wayne and Jay-Z!’” At the moment, he doesn’t get to see his six sons a lot. He moved out because he felt more like he was doing more harm than good. But he also decided to change for his mother. “All night she was worried about me when I went to away to do criminal stuff”, Denis narrates. “Now she doesn’t have to worry anymore.”

When the 34-year-old found out about Street Sense and the possibility to bring awareness of the homeless issues to the people, he figured out that it is his second chance. He started talking to some vendors about the classes one has to take to become a vendor and make $1.50 with each paper sold. “I was like: What – 75%? That is way better than selling drugs! I will try that!” However, after his first day he noticed that money is not the most important aspect of his new job: “The best thing is that I get to talk to people and they show me that I’m there. I can brand my own brand and just be me!” For the same reasons, he also recently decided to become a stand up comedian. “When I started doing that I turned my pain into jokes and laughter”, Denis’ alias DC DingBat states.

Poverty, crime, selling and taking drugs, going to prison, dealing with mental illnesses: as one of the over 7,000 homeless people on DC’s streets, Denis has gone through nearly everything. But it gives hope, that he is on a good way to get out of it with standing at the Metro Center for Street Sense and making nearly every person smile. “Happy Friday – it’s the last day, now you can breathe!” or “You look beautiful today, give me a smile!”, he shouts. And with these words somehow the former prisoner made peoples’ day while they step out of the tube and try to stay warm in this cold winter.

3 Headlines That Haunted Their Copy Editors Forever




Translation: “First passenger train arrived and departed from Bodø today – a Negro was onboard”

Source: Aftenposten, February 2, 1962

Explanation: In February of 1962, the first passenger train travelled on the new Nordland Line from Trondheim to Bodø, Norway. The line, carved out through hundreds of miles of sparsely populated terrain and a brutal mountain pass, was hailed as a major engineering achievement at the time. Realistically speaking, it only took that long because that’s when we got around to it. Aboard this first train was a Surinamese jazz musician, on route to joining his band. They were going to spend a few weeks at a club in Bodø, entertaining the natives of this frozen, windy hellhole. This being Norway in 1962, there were approximately five people of color in the whole country. Thus, Norway’s largest newspaper found his presence on the train to be relevant. The cover still hangs on the wall somewhere in the newsroom, serving as a reminder to the copy editors of today.

Why is it wrong? The racism, the patronizing, etc.



Source: Chicago Tribune, November 3, 1948

Explanation: It had been a torrid three years in the Oval Office for Harry Truman, and few expected him to win re-election in ’48. Thomas Dewey, a New York mob buster, was the Republican candidate, and he contended that the best strategy would be to avoid making any mistakes. While Dewey sat back and waited for the electorate to come to him, Truman crisscrossed the country and ran a hugely energetic campaign. Opinion polls at the time were very unreliable (read: they were done by phone, which many people didn’t have, and were taken weeks before election day), so they didn’t pick up on the fact that Truman was gaining steam. On election night, the Chicago Tribune were so sure of the outcome that they just went with “Dewey Defeats Truman”. Presumably, the copy editor came in on the morning of the 2nd, typed it in, and then ran off to watch the Cubs lose. This is probably the most famous headline screwup in history. To their credit, the Tribune managed to change it in time for the second edition.

Why is it wrong? Because it gets the most basic fact wrong.



Source: The Sun, April 19, 1989

Explanation: Yes, a Murdoch paper had to make it into this. English soccer grounds in the 1980s were a sad sight. Due to dozens of cases of hooliganism and violence, authorities had decided that the best policy would be to put fans of the away team into “pens” – sections surrounded by massive fences on all sides. On 4/15/1989, Liverpool FC (THE English soccer team in the 80’s) played a game at the Hillsborough stadium in Sheffield. Thousands of Liverpool fans followed the team, and it became obvious that the away section would not be able to hold all of them. Nobody realized this and closed off the entrance, however, and eventually the people in the front rows started getting crushed up against the fence. Fans began climbing over the fence in a desperate attempt to escape. The police, distrustful of soccer fans in general, tried to stop them. It took almost half an hour before anyone realized how horribly wrong this was going and let an ambulance onto the field. 96 fans died in the disaster, which could have been averted if the police were less incompetent and distrustful. The Sun, Murdoch’s lead tabloid paper in the UK, published this cover four days later. To this day, nobody buys The Sun in Liverpool.

Why is it wrong? Because it claims to know the truth, and presents three very serious claims about people’s behavior, none of which were true.